=> a information may be a organized assortment of interconnected knowledge. For
example a univ decibel stores knowledge associated with students,courses,facutly
etc and bank decibel stores knowledge associated with customers,transactions
Kinds of Databases :-
one OLTP decibel (online group action processing)
a pair of OLAP decibel (online analytical processing)
=> organizations uses OLTP for storing daily transactions and OLAP for analysis.
=> OLTP is employed to run business and OLAP is employed to investigate business.
=> daily operations on decibel includes
software system :- (Database Management System)
=> it’s a software system wont to produce and to manage information.
=> software system is AN interface between user and information.
Evolution of software system :-
1960 FMS (File Mgmt System)
1970 HDBMS (Hierarchical DBMS)
NDBMS (Network DBMS)
1980 RDBMS (Relational DBMS)
1990 ORDBMS (Object relative DBMS)
OODBMS (Object oriented DBMS)
RDBMS :- (Relational information Mgmt System)
=> RDBMS ideas ar introduced by E.F.CODD
=> in line with E.F.CODD in information knowledge should be organized in
tables i.e. rows and columns.
ten sachin mum
eleven rohit del
twelve ravi hyd => row,record,tuple
information = assortment of tables
TABLE = assortment of rows and columns
ROW = assortment of field values
COLUMN = assortment of values allotted to 1 field
=> each table should contain primary key to unambiguously identity the records.
Ex :- ACCNO,EMPID,CUSTID,AADHARNO,PANNO
=> one table is expounded to a different table by victimization foreign key
ORDID ORD_DT DEL_DT CID(FK) CID(Pk) NAME ADDR
1001 21- 28- 11 11 rohit del
1002 22- 29- 12 12 ravi hyd
RDBMS options :-
one straightforward to scan and manipulate knowledge
a pair of less redundency (duplication of data)
three a lot of security
four gurantees knowledge integrity i.e. knowledge quality
five supports knowledge sharing
six supports transactions (ACID properties)
RDBMS softwares :- (SQL databases)
oracle from oracle corporation
sql server from Microsoft
mysql from Oracle corporation
postgresql from PostgreSQL
db2 from IBM
ORDBMS :- (object oriented dbms)
=> it’s the mix of RDBMS & OOPS
ORDBMS = RDBMS + OOPS (reusability)
=> RDBMS does not support reusability however ordbms supports reusability
=> ORDBMS supports reusability by victimization ADT (abstract datatype)
CID NAME HNO STREET CITY STATE PIN
EMPID ENAME HNO STREET CITY STATE PIN
ADT :- ADDR(HNO,STREET,CITY,STATE,PIN)
Criminal Investigation Command NAME ADDR
EMPID ENAME ADDR
=> ORACLE is largely rdbms product from oracle corporation and conjointly
supports options of ordbms and wont to produce and to manage information.
=> ORACLE is used for each decibel development and administration.
style Development Administration
ER model ORACLE ORACLE
making tables installation of oracle
making views making information
making synonyms making userids
making indexes decibel backup & restore
making sequences decibel upgradation & migration
making procedures performance standardisation
versions of ORACLE :-
Version Year New options
Oracle v2, 1979 First commercially SQL-based RDBMS
Oracle v3, 1983 Concurrency management, knowledge distribution, quantifiability
Oracle v4, 1984 Multiversion scan consistency
Oracle v5, 1985 Client/server computing Support & distributed information systems
Oracle v6, 1988 Row-level lockup, quantifiability, on-line backup and recovery, PL/SQL, Oracle Parallel Server
Oracle 7, 1992 PL/SQL keep procedures, Triggers, Shared Cursors, price primarily based Optimizer, clear Application Failover
Oracle 8i, 1997 Recovery Manager, Partitioning, Dataguard, Native web protocols, Java, Virtual personal information
Oracle 9i, 2001 Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), Oracle XML decibel, data processing, Streams, Logical Standby
Oracle 10gR1, 2003 Grid infrastructure, Oracle ASM, Flashback information, Automatic information Diagnostic Monitor
Oracle 10gR2, 2005 Real Application Testing, information Vault, on-line compartmentalization, Advanced Compression, clear encoding
Oracle 11gR1, 2007 Active knowledge Guard, Secure Files, Exadata
Oracle 11gR2, 2009 Data Redaction, Hybrid Columnar Compression, Cluster classification system, strait Replication, information Appliance
Oracle 12cR1, 2013 Multitenant design, In-Memory Column Store, Native JSON, SQL Pattern Matching, information Cloud Service
Oracle 12cR2, 2016 Native Sharding, Zero knowledge Loss Recovery Appliance, Exadata Cloud Service, Cloud at client
Oracle 18c, 2018 Autonomous information, knowledge Guard Multi-Instance Redo Apply, Polymorphic Table Functions, Active Directory Integration
Oracle 19c 2019 Automatic compartmentalization, Data-guard DML direct,Partitioned Hybrid Tables, time period Stats + Stats solely Queries
i => web
g => grid
c => cloud
=> from 8i forrader oracle supports web applications.
=> grid means that assortment of servers , from 10g forrader oracle decibel
is accessed through multiple servers.so this improves
=> from 12c forrader oracle decibel is deployed in
one on premises server
a pair of on cloud server
=> in ” on premises ” decibel is deployed within the server managed by consumer.
=> in ” on cloud ” decibel is deployed within the server managed by cloud service supplier like amazon,microsoft,google etc.
client/server design :-
=> server may be a system wherever oracle software system is put in and running
=> within the server oracle manages the subsequent 2 recollections.
=> decibel is formed in disc and it acts as permanent storage.
=> INSTANCE is formed in ram and it acts as temporary storage.
=> consumer may be a system wherever users will
one connects to server
a pair of submit requests to server
three recieves response from server
client tools :-
SQLPLUS (CUI based)
SQL DEVELOPER (GUI based)
TOAD (GUI based)