Foundations Of Oracle

Database :-

 => a information may be a organized assortment of interconnected knowledge. For

    example a univ decibel stores knowledge associated with students,courses,facutly

    etc and bank decibel stores knowledge associated with customers,transactions

    and loans.

 Kinds of Databases :-

 one OLTP decibel (online group action processing)

 a pair of OLAP decibel (online analytical processing)

 => organizations uses OLTP for storing daily transactions and OLAP for analysis.

 => OLTP is employed to run business and OLAP is employed to investigate business.

 => daily operations on decibel includes

 software system :- (Database Management System)

 => it’s a software system wont to produce and to manage information.

 => software system is AN interface between user and information.

 Evolution of software system :-

  1960          FMS (File Mgmt System)

  1970            HDBMS (Hierarchical DBMS)

                       NDBMS (Network DBMS)

  1980            RDBMS  (Relational DBMS)

  1990            ORDBMS (Object relative DBMS)

                        OODBMS (Object oriented  DBMS)

 RDBMS :-   (Relational information Mgmt System)

 => RDBMS ideas ar introduced by E.F.CODD

 => in line with E.F.CODD in information knowledge should be organized in

    tables i.e. rows and columns.


 ten     sachin           mum

 eleven          rohit              del

 twelve          ravi                hyd   => row,record,tuple

 information = assortment of tables

       TABLE    = assortment of rows and columns

       ROW      = assortment of field values

       COLUMN   = assortment of values allotted to 1 field

 => each table should contain primary key to unambiguously identity the records.


 => one table is expounded to a different table by victimization foreign key


   ORDID  ORD_DT  DEL_DT  CID(FK)    CID(Pk)          NAME           ADDR  

   1001           21-     28-                   11                  11       rohit              del

   1002           22-     29-                  12                   12       ravi                hyd   

 RDBMS options :-

 one straightforward to scan and manipulate knowledge

 a pair of less redundency (duplication of data)

 three a lot of security

 four gurantees knowledge integrity i.e. knowledge quality

 five supports knowledge sharing

 six supports transactions (ACID properties)

      A   atomocity

      C   consistency

      I   isolation

      D sturdiness

 RDBMS softwares :- (SQL databases)

 oracle                from oracle corporation

 sql server            from Microsoft

 mysql                 from Oracle corporation

 postgresql            from PostgreSQL

 db2                   from IBM

 NoSQL :-



ORDBMS :- (object oriented  dbms)

=> it’s the mix of RDBMS & OOPS

    ORDBMS = RDBMS + OOPS (reusability)

=> RDBMS does not support reusability however ordbms supports reusability

=> ORDBMS supports reusability by victimization ADT (abstract datatype)



 CID    NAME            HNO   STREET          CITY    STATE  PIN


 EMPID          ENAME          HNO   STREET          CITY    STATE  PIN




 Criminal Investigation Command     NAME    ADDR




  => ORACLE is largely rdbms product from oracle corporation and conjointly

  supports options of ordbms and wont to produce and to manage information.

 => ORACLE is used for each decibel development and administration.

 style             Development        Administration

       ER model           ORACLE             ORACLE


             Development                 Administration

 making tables                    installation of oracle

 making views making information

 making synonyms making userids

 making indexes decibel backup & restore

 making sequences decibel upgradation & migration

 making procedures         performance standardisation

 making functions

             creatring triggers

             writing queries

 versions of ORACLE :-

  Version          Year              New options

Oracle v2,         1979                      First commercially SQL-based RDBMS

Oracle v3,         1983                      Concurrency management, knowledge distribution, quantifiability

Oracle v4,         1984                      Multiversion scan consistency

Oracle v5,         1985                     Client/server computing Support & distributed information systems

Oracle v6,         1988                      Row-level lockup, quantifiability, on-line backup and recovery, PL/SQL, Oracle Parallel Server

Oracle  7,         1992                       PL/SQL keep procedures, Triggers, Shared Cursors, price primarily based Optimizer, clear Application Failover

Oracle  8i,        1997                       Recovery Manager, Partitioning, Dataguard, Native web protocols, Java, Virtual personal information

Oracle  9i,        2001                       Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), Oracle XML decibel, data processing, Streams, Logical Standby

Oracle 10gR1,            2003                       Grid infrastructure, Oracle ASM, Flashback information, Automatic information Diagnostic Monitor

Oracle 10gR2,      2005                 Real Application Testing, information Vault, on-line compartmentalization, Advanced Compression, clear encoding

Oracle 11gR1,      2007                 Active knowledge Guard, Secure Files, Exadata

Oracle 11gR2,      2009                 Data Redaction, Hybrid Columnar Compression, Cluster classification system, strait Replication, information Appliance

Oracle 12cR1,      2013                  Multitenant design, In-Memory Column Store, Native JSON, SQL Pattern Matching, information Cloud Service

Oracle 12cR2,      2016                  Native Sharding, Zero knowledge Loss Recovery Appliance, Exadata Cloud Service, Cloud at client

Oracle 18c,        2018                    Autonomous information, knowledge Guard Multi-Instance Redo Apply, Polymorphic Table Functions, Active Directory Integration

Oracle 19c         2019                     Automatic compartmentalization, Data-guard DML direct,Partitioned Hybrid Tables, time period Stats + Stats solely Queries

          i => web

          g => grid

          c => cloud

 => from 8i forrader oracle supports web applications.

  => grid means that assortment of servers , from 10g forrader oracle decibel

 is accessed through multiple this improves


  => from 12c forrader oracle decibel is deployed in

 one on premises server

 a pair of on cloud server

 =>  in ” on premises ” decibel is deployed within the server managed by consumer.

 => in ” on cloud ” decibel is deployed within the server managed by cloud service supplier like amazon,microsoft,google etc.

 client/server design :-


 => server may be a system wherever oracle software system is put in and running

 => within the server oracle manages the subsequent 2 recollections.

  1 DB


=> decibel is formed in disc and it acts as permanent storage.

=> INSTANCE is formed in ram and it acts as temporary storage.


 => consumer may be a system wherever users will

 one connects to server

 a pair of submit requests to server

 three recieves response from server

client tools :-



TOAD  (GUI based)

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *