A program could be a set of directions that tells a pc what to try to to so as to come back up with an answer to a specific drawback. Programs area unit written employing a artificial language. A artificial language could be a formal language designed to speak directions to a pc. There area unit 2 major varieties of programming languages: low-level languages and high-level languages.
Low-Level Languages :-
Low-level languages area unit cited as ‘low’ as a result of they’re terribly on the point of however completely different hardware parts of a pc truly communicate with one another. Low-level languages area unit machine homeward-bound and need intensive information of component and its configuration. There area unit 2 classes of low-level languages: machine language and programing language.
Machine language, or computer code, is that the solely language that’s directly understood by the pc, and it doesn’t ought to be translated. All directions use mathematical notation and area unit written as a string of 1s and 0s. A program instruction in machine language might look one thing like this:
However, mathematical notation is extremely troublesome for humans to know. this can be wherever assembly languages are available.
An programing language is that the commencement to boost programming structure and build machine language a lot of legible by humans. associate programing language consists of a group of symbols and letters. A translator is needed to translate the programing language to machine language known as the ‘assembler.’ whereas easier than computer code, assembly languages area unit still pretty troublesome to know. this can be why high-level languages are developed.
High-Level Languages :-
A application-oriented language could be a artificial language that uses English and mathematical symbols, like +, -, attempt to several others, in its directions. once exploitation the term ‘programming languages,’ most of the people are literally bearing on high-level languages. High-level languages area unit the languages most frequently employed by programmers to jot down programs. samples of highlevel languages area unit C++, Fortran, Java and Python.
Learning a application-oriented language isn’t in contrast to learning another human language – you would like to be told vocabulary and descriptive linguistics therefore you’ll build sentences. to be told a artificial language, you would like to be told commands, syntax and logic, that correspond closely to vocabulary and descriptive linguistics.
The code of most high-level languages is moveable and also the same code will run on completely different hardware while not modification. each computer code and assembly languages area unit hardware 10101011100001110100111101 specific which implies that the computer code wont to run a program on one specific pc has to be changed to run on another pc.
A application-oriented language can’t be understood directly by a pc, and it has to be translated into computer code. There area unit 2 ways that to try to to this, and that they area unit associated with however the program is executed: a application-oriented language may be compiled or understood.
Compiler vs Interpreter :-
A compiler could be a malicious program that interprets a program written during a application-oriented language to the machine language of a pc. The high-level program is cited as ‘the ASCII text file.’ The compiler is employed to translate ASCII text file into computer code or compiled code. This doesn’t nevertheless use any of the computer file. once the compiled code is dead, cited as ‘running the program,’ the program processes the computer file to provide the specified output.
An interpreter could be a malicious program that directly executes directions written in
a artificial language, while not requiring them antecedently to possess been compiled into
a machine language program.
How to begin writing programs :-
Algorithm could be a piecemeal procedure, that defines a group of directions to be dead during a sure order to induce the specified output. Algorithms area unit typically created freelance of underlying languages, i.e. associate rule may be enforced in additional than one artificial language.
Qualities of an honest rule
1. Input and output ought to be outlined exactly.
2. every step within the rule ought to be clear and unambiguous.
3. associate rule mustn’t embody code. Instead rule ought to be written in such the simplest way that it may be employed in completely different programming languages.
Good, logical programming is developed through sensible pre-code designing and organization. this can be aided by the employment of pseudocode and program flowcharts.